Start of Cattle thefts, Raids and Revenge Raids in Karamoja: a Tale without End
By Remigio Achia
When Was your First Rezzou Carried By the Karamojong?
1 . 0 Origins of Cattle Raiding in Karamoja
Cattle thefts, raiding and interclan conflicts happen to be neither fresh nor particular to the Karamojong as a people. Raiding was very much feature of early societies and was very prevalent during early 100 years migrations. What probably can be surprising is that whereas the majority of settled neighborhoods have abandoned intertribal raiding in modern times, the Karamojong and most pastoral residential areas in the Car horn of The african continent continue to raid with elevating levels of damage of man lives and property.
In modern-day Karamoja, early on travellers reviews indicate that livestock raiding and eradicating were regular occurrences while early the 17th Century (Bell, 1949: 75). When the British first built contact with Karamoja in 1897 through Encolure. Macdonald s i9000 relief escolta to the Sudan, they found heavily informed groups of Karamojong who were trading in ivory. The investors were through Col. Macdonald to have recently been at the total mercy in the Karamojong who had been trading off white for guns, cattle and ammunitions (Barber, 1969: 94). The newly acquired arms and ammunitions were utilized by Karamojong organizations, joined simply by ivory dealers, in releasing raids against weaker groups. The Uk traders are reported to have complained towards the Colonial Representatives in Jinja in 1903 that such raiding and trafficking in arms being motivated by Arabs and Swahili traders has not been only ultimately causing increased bloodshed, but was disrupting a profitable business that was getting the Colonial time office more than 10, 1000 British pounds annually (Bell, 1949: 85, Dyson-Hudson, 1958: 3a). A roving patrol is through Dyson Hudson and Herrefris?r to have recently been dispatched by Jinja to Karamoja during those times but no more action was taken.
It was simply in 1911 when an inquiry into Lamogi rebellion found that the two Acholi Chiefs that had been active in the revolt resistant to the British experienced actually obtained their forearms and ammunitions from Karamojong traders. In July 1912, a permanent Upper Garrison was constituted and sent to Karamoja to disarm them and stop inter-tribal raids (Barber, 1969: 122123). If the Northern Fort arrived in Karamoja, it met with stiff resistance and it absolutely was only with systematic scorch methods which it succeeded in subduing the natives. In Barber (1969), it is reported the Garrison would make sure that wherever this made exposure to the Karamojong,
would be burnt, crops slashed and livestock seized (Barber, 1969: 129). In Dodoth for example, 2, 037 cattle and 1, 660 goats had been seized between July and August 1913 (Barber, 69: 134). Ultimately, the English managed to deactivate all Karamojong between 1912-1921. Incidents of cattle raids and inter clan clashes were almost unheard of. Karamoja was put under military occupation till independence period in 62.
Yet , around end of the Ww2, guns little by little re-entered Karamoja, being brought by war returnees and other escapees so that slowly but steadily cattle thefts and disappearances started to be reported. By 1950s, one of the Western european travellers by names Gulliver observed, although Karamojong share a mutually intelligible terminology, they frequently discord (Gulliver, 1953).
Slowly and gradually, cattle thefts started to be reported by the Karamojong to the Law enforcement. These were, nevertheless , ignored by Colonial Govt since they had been viewed as an internal affair with the natives and were normally reported as increasing lack of security in the area (Barber, 1968). Central Federal government Police Information often reported small local raids but no mass raiding was reported right up until January 1945 when the Suk attacked the Pian causing six deaths (Annual Reviews of the Uganda Police, 1945)
Not any incident of cattle raiding was again reported right up until 1953 when ever again a...
References: Barber, James (1969) Imperial Frontier, East Photography equipment Publishing Home, 1969
Bell, W. D. M(1949) Karamoja Safari, Victor Gallancz, 1949
Dyson-Hudson (1958) Present Position of the Karamojong, Colonial Office Memo, 1958
Lochiam, Rose (1999) Peace Collectively (Ekithil Kaapei): Understanding, Working together with and on
Violent Turmoil in Karamoja, LWF Moroto
Sandra Gray (2002), The Experience of Assault and Pastoralist Identity in Southern Karamoja,
2002, Unpublished Daily news
USAID Study (2002) Greater Car horn of Africa Peace Building Project Analysis and
Welch, C. P. (1969) Pastoralists and Administration in Conflict: A Study of Karamoja Districr 18971968,